The results of this study support the belief that shopping time is affected by a retail environmental factor like store music. Individuals who had a choice as to the duration of their shopping experience shopped longer when listening to less familiar music compared with more familiar music.
Individuals reported being less aroused while listening to the unfamiliar music compared with the familiar music. Once the effect of arousal on shopping times was considered, other reactions to music familiarity (either measured or unmeasured) did not have an effect on actual shopping times.
The effects of familiar and unfamiliar music were very different when perceived rather than actual shopping times were considered. When total shopping time was controlled, individuals reported shopping for a longer time when they had been exposed to the less familiar background music compared with the familiar foreground music. This effect was not mediated by the emotional response measures, suggesting that it might reflect cognitive rather than emotional reactions.
The results of this research revealed that environmental music affected product evaluations in a less clear way than shopping times. In the fixed time condition, products were evaluated higher when subjects were exposed to familiar compared with unfamiliar music. However, when time was not controlled, music had no effect on product evaluations. Although product evaluations were positively related to the pleasure measures and negatively related to arousal, these emotional relationships could not be related to the music manipulations. For example, in the fixed time condition, subjects reported higher product evaluations but lower pleasure ratings when listening to familiar music