The findings from this experiment are unique in reporting the existence of a significant, positive relationship between background musical tempo and temporal perception. The slow-tempo (short-wait) treatment was distinctively the only treatment in which the mean perceived duration estimate remained shorter than the mean actual wait. In all other treatments, mean perceived duration expanded well beyond mean actual wait duration. The restraining influence of slow-tempo music upon perceived duration estimates was negated as the length of wait became longer, and the significance of the relationship eroded as irritation levels rose in the transition from short- to long-waits.
H2: Positive affective response was significantly enhanced by the use of slow rather than fast-tempo music , and the significant relationship embraced short- and long-wait bands. In addition, each of the factors comprising positive affective response (satisfaction, positive disconfirmation of expectations, and relaxation) was significantly enhanced by slow rather than fast-tempo music.
Results revealed how temporal perception estimates contracted in the presence of background music. Presence of music also produced significantly higher levels of positive affective response for short waits, whereas long-waits in- duced significantly higher levels of negative affective response, sug- gesting that music may become a negatively intrusive distraction for longer waits.